We analyse the body parts of cladocerans and cladoceran ephippia from water and sediment samples in which chitinous remains are usually well preserved.

Slides are prepared in the standard way following laboratory pre-treatment and the different body parts are identified and counted using light microscopy at x400 magnification. Diagrams are produced showing both the concentration of remains per unit of sediment or the relative abundance of the different taxa for lake sediment or open water samples. The much larger ephippia remains are isolated, identified and counted in conjunction with plant macrofossil analyses from lake sediment samples.